Archive for the ‘Linux Box’ Category

Create/Edit iso image in linux

Posted: May 21, 2009 by Narendra Shah in Linux Box
Tags: ,

It’s rather trivial task to make some changes into already burned installation or live CD. It may be performed to add some files to this CD or edit files on it. In any case it’s impossible to loop mount .iso file and then save it as iso9660 filesystem is read-only.

So, just mount your CD or iso image to some directory by commands:

sudo mkdir /mnt/image
sudo mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/image


sudo mount /path/to/your.iso /mnt/image -o loop

then copy it’s contents to some directory:

mkdir /tmp/newiso
cp -r /mnt/image /tmp/newiso

After this you can modify any files in /tmp/newiso, add files, delete them. After modifications are done, create new ISO image to be burned onto CD (or kept somewhere for a rainy day):

cd /tmp/newiso


sudo mkisofs -o /tmp/new.iso -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/ -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -J -R -V “new iso name” .

After mkisofs is finished new ISO file will be created at /tmp directory.

About OS install on USB pen Drive

Posted: March 23, 2009 by Narendra Shah in Linux Box, Reserch And Development

After long time i am back with the Operating System on USB or pen drive. See i am not forcing you to install the linux on pen drive. But some times it is very helpful to you to have Any OS handy on your hand. Just put your usb in any machine and your likely OS is ready to use.

Today let me instroduce one software which works with both linux and windows to install iso to your pendrive. Really very nice tool and very user friendly also. I am looking for such tool from long time. One more thing this is open source.

UNetbootin allows you to create bootable Live USB drives for a variety of Linux distributions from Windows or Linux, without requiring you to burn a CD. You can either let it download one of the many distributions supported out-of-the-box for you, or supply your own Linux .iso file if you’ve already downloaded one or your preferred distribution isn’t on the list.

And one more thing i am currently studying debian OS named Backtrack 4, which includes tool for hacking. If you are interested get it from the net and work with again USB and enjoy Hacking and not cracking. and know your network activity.

–Narendra Shah.

This time i am being late to put blog. Today i am came with the concept that install linux on pen drive. 

Now the question stays that why to install linux on usb pen drive ?

I have seen many people who dont want to experiment new OS on their laptop/computer harddisk. because generally afraid of hard disk failure.  And that is one reason that linux is not used. 

Some users think it is difficult to install linux on haddisk ….. multi boot and removal problem and many more, so not play with it. Frankly speaking I am also with them. 

Now days USB cost very low approximately 2GB @ Rs 250 / $4 and 8 GB @ Rs 750 / $6 with good brand name. It is better to use any of them other then using your own hard disk.

Now let me come to the point. I found very easy way to install fedora linux on usb drives.  Not to say more about fedora. It is very nice OS and used by many people. I also like it. 

To intall you just need to download liveusb-creator which is compatible with windows(8.9MB) and linux(183kb).

Get it from the site and follow the step given by him. and your Fedora Linux is ready. And you can use it when ever you like on your laptop / computer, without any problem. 

Come out of that costly Windows and have one look over how is linux ? And then decide which one is better. 

I hope you will try it now. 

Linux Performance

Posted: November 14, 2008 by Narendra Shah in Linux Box
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1. How to make things run faster?

This actually is not a problem. Most of the people who are new to Linux usually are surprised by the speed it works at. They love to find the machine responding faster and the decrease in system boot up and application launch response. But for enthusiasts it is never enough. They would always want to have a bit more. They would just push the machine to its extreme and thats what they rejoice in.

From another perspective, we may need our computer to do a particular job faster than other jobs. For example, one may want that the CD burning program is allocated more resources so that CD is not corrupted or one may like that Databases respond quicker.

For this to be accomplished, you need to run the program with a higher priority. In the Linux world, the term ‘niceness’ corresponds to priority. The second thing to be remembered is that a program with LESS niceness is more prior than others. The easier was to remember is that a person who is less nice to others will prefer HIS work before allowing his neighbors to use the resources. So a less nice process will ask for allocation of resources more towards itself than towards the other processes.

The niceness of a process in Linux will typically range from -20 (greatest priority) to +19 (least priority). So if you need to run a process with more priority, run it with less niceness. The easiest way to do this is as follows :

Code: Select all
# nice --adjustment=<niceness> COMMAND

This will run the COMMAND with the specified niceness. nice command is used to set priority of Process in linux. The thing to be noticed is that the nice command can be used only by the root. So you need to be the root before running it. However that would launch the process as root which is not desirable. So to make sure that the nice program is executable by all the users, run the following command as root:

Code: Select all
# chmod +s /usr/bin/nice

Now, an example for the nice command ca be as follows:

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#nice --adjustment=-15 vmware

Runs VMware with a much higher priority (-15) than the normal (0).

NOTE: Remember that you should not run any process with a niceness lower than -15 (without knowing what actually is done) as this may make other processes really slow depending on what the process does.

Let me discuss what benefits I get by using the above example:

Since I run my Windows OS with only one processor power allocated to it which is fairly OK in most of the cases where heavy multitasking is not required. But when I am doing some multitasking in the Virtual Machine but do not want to get my system slow which I use for downloading, copying files and listening to music at one time, I am at a loss. In this case, I run the VMware with a higher priority (and a lower niceness) so that all the power of the ONE processor goes to the Windows in virtual environment and makes it run faster (however multiple machines at one time will take away more power from both processors) and my real machine works at a fair speed as well.

So if you understand what your program does, you can very well run each and every program at a favorable speed.

NOTE: DO not be in the illusion that if you launch all the programs with a higher priority, all of them will run much fast. Niceness of a process is RELATIVE TO OTHER PROCESSES and hence only a few programs which are needed to be run faster can be launched with a lower niceness, not all of them.


I will add more performance hits over here as time goes.

Vista look on Linux

Posted: November 14, 2008 by Narendra Shah in Linux Box

So I have been Watching these days that many people (well, exactly speaking, I am talking about my friends) are ready to push their parents to buy them a new OS (or some insist a complete LAPTOP) because they want Vista. No one agrees with HOME BASIC. AT LEAST HOME PREMIUM IS NECESSARY for all of them!

I went on asking them the reason why they wanted to shell out Rs. 8000 – 10000 on an OS when XP was working all fine, with better hardware support, nice speed, less memory usage, more compatible programs and all such things, they said “AERO”. HUH!

I know that Vista indeed is an appreciable product. But I really do not know or understand the reason why a person must shell out thousands for a GLASSY WINDOWS look! So of course I had to show them the LONG LONG list of EFFECTS from the world of Linux and that meant Compiz-fusion.

I know that there are still many many people who want Vista JUST FOR the effects and are ready to give away a lot of their parents’ hard earned money on premium hardware and an unstable OS, that too just for the looks. This makes me remind of two sentences I heard from on of my friends who had bought a HP pavillion Notebook, which came preloaded with Vista! They are:

1) Looks of an OS are like the face & figure of a young Girl. All the beauty that you see might not be really appreciable, specially when it comes to behavior; for both the cases.

2) Vista crashes more than twice a day. I am unable to figure out how HP and Microsoft have collaborated to give out an OS which was CUSTOMIZED to run on that very hardware and that still crashes more than once a day with almost no severe computational load?

And yes, both of these statements hold true.

So, if you have become a die hard fan of the looks of Vista (i.e. AERO interface) and are ready to take out cash from the wallet, go through the images whose thumbnails I have posted below.


1) Cover switcher:

You can switch between the application windows in the same way you do in the Album artwork in iTunes’ latest versions!

2) Flip switcher:


You can switch and select between application Windows in much the same way as you do on Windows VISTA AERO!

3) Show of Shadows:


Shadows are a very impressive part of the Windows Vista AERO interface. Look at the shadow of the Windows one-over-another.

4) Hugry for glass! :


Of course the glass is something to die for! And yes, you can have more GLASS in LINUX with compiz fusion when compared to vista and what more? It is YOU who will decide how much glass is enough for you for surrounding your applications!

And yes, it is worth a mention that WHATEVER you see on ANY of the above screenshots is COMPLETELY CUSTOMIZABLE. Right from the color of the glass for active and inactive Windows, Color of text on the title bar, the amopunt of glass surrounding the Windows, The Frame sizes in the flip and cover switchers, transparency of Glass, buttons and MUCH MUCH MORE can be decided by ONLY YOU!

Still not convinced on the point that Linux has all the interface effects (and much much more) than what Windows has to offer? You can surely opt to give away 10000 bucks for INSTABILITY AND RESOURCE WASTAGE in return.

Puppy installation On Pen Drive / USB

Posted: November 14, 2008 by Narendra Shah in Linux Box

In this simple USB Puppy Linux tutorial we illustrate how to easily install Puppy linux on a USB flash pen drive using the Universal installer included on the Puppy Linux CD. Puppy is a unique Linux compilation that is super small, yet contains many useful tools and utilities. Most versions of Puppy Linux will fit on even a 128MB USB stick. Making it great to install to those older tiny thumb drives you might have sitting around.


Puppy Linux Screenshot

What you’ll need to create a USB Puppy:

  • 128MB or larger USB Stick
  • PC with a CD reader/burner

The process:

Puppy Linux contains it’s own Universal Installer so installation is fairly straightforward.

  1. Download Puppy linux.
  2. Burn the ISO to CD.
  3. Start your computer via Puppy CD.
  4. Once Puppy has loaded, from the Taskbar, Click: Start-> Setup-> Puppy universal installer
  5. Puppy Linux USB Install

  6. Follow the onscreen instructions which will walk you through the Puppy USB installation process
  7. When finished with the Puppy USB install, reboot your PC and go into system BIOS to change your boot order to boot from the USB device
  8. Save your settings and reboot your PC to enjoy running Puppy Linux from USB


How to boot the PC from a USB pen drive

Most modern PCs support booting from a USB drive. If not already configured, it is a matter of invoking the BIOS setup when the PC first powers-up. Most often this is done by pressing the DEL key, but some PCs require a function key to be pressed, such as F2. Then, what is called the “boot order” can be setup, and you would typically set CD drive first then hard drive, or you can include a USB drive or floppy drive in the boot-check sequence.

In the BIOS setup you may find some choices for different types of USB drives, such as “USB ZIP”, “USB FLOPPY” and “USB HDD” — the letters “HDD” mean “Hard Disk Drive”. A pen drive will usually work with the “USB ZIP” setting, but it depends on the BIOS and you may have to choose “USB HDD”.

If you have an older PC that cannot boot from USB, or you have an odd pen drive that the BIOS doesn’t recognise (it happens!), there is a fall-back. This fall-back applies also to PCs that cannot boot from a CD drive. This is to use a boot floppy. Puppy has something especially for this situation, called WakePup, developed by Puppy enthusiast “pakt” — look in the “Setup” menu and you will see an entry “WakePup create boot floppy”. This will create a floppy disk that your PC can boot from. The WakePup floppy disk scans the PC and finds Puppy on a USB drive, hard drive, or CD/DVD drive.

Note however, as it is a DOS-based system WakePup can only recognise ISO9660, FAT and NTFS filesystems. CDs use the ISO9660 filesystem for holding files, so that is okay. USB pen drives are usually formatted with FAT16 filesystem, so that is also okay. MSDOS and Windows 95/98 installations are in hard drive partitions with FAT filesystems, so again okay.
WakePup will recognise Puppy installed in a NTFS (Windows XP) hard drive partition, but I believe this is still experimental. WakePup will not recognise Puppy in a Linux partition.

Puppy linux review

Before i start to tell you about pupply linux. Let me tell you something interesting.  


You just need to install pupply linux on pen drive. Which hardly require 200 MB on your pen drive. One more thing you can hide puppy partition, which is not shown when your pen drive is in windows machine. This is already i have checked, and it is working with vista also. You just need to boot machine with the pen drive. And your work is done. I know you are very curious about how to install puppy linux on pen and hide it. I have it in my next post. But let’s first understand what is puppy ?…….

Ok, first off the reason i chose this one is that i need a os to install on a 200mhz processor,32mb ram 4Gb hard disk.I had tried 98 but it slowed the computer down.Dsl didnot boot on this computer but then it never got installed even on my computer.So I found puppy whose minimum requirements is same as the computer I needed to install on. So I went ahead and downloaded it.
The live cd
During the boot-up one is asked for language,Keyboard-type,X-org or x-free.(This kind of gets irritating if u use live cd a lot).The installation is pretty descent with the only problem being the installation of grub.
The Desktop
Puppy uses gtk which keeps everything minimalistic.Though this gives a great boost in speed it tends to get irritating over time but there are descent amount of themes present for gtk.
heres a pic of the desktop. … esktop.png

The package contents
One would be surprised at what puppy manages to fit in just 80mb.
For video and audio it comes with gxine which is pretty good.
It supports mp3 out of the box.
For office it comes with abiword,calculate(spreadsheet etc.)
It also writes to ntfs out of the box.
It comes with seamonkey for a browser.(Opera and firefox can be installed)
The package manager is pretty good.
For I.M it comes with gaim and ymsgr can be installed.
It also comes with a pdf viewer.
Puts ur system on diet.
Net is damn fast.
comes with a xp theme
Ease of configration.
One pretty descent game(directing sheep to their alloted numbers using a dog pretty engrossing)
cant copy more than one file at a time.
prnt scrn doesnt do any thing one has to manually run the program.

Compare Linux flavour

Posted: November 14, 2008 by Narendra Shah in Linux Box
Tags: , , ,

There has been a lot of Windows – Linux flame war between between community members where they go on fighting over topics whether Linux is more stable or Windows and which of the two looks good!

Well, all the community members who have ever used both OSes for decent period, would surely say that both of them have their own uses and its the USER who has to decide what his OS should be. No matter what your OS is, its the set of features (including the applications) and the level of ease of use ultimately decides what could be OS of choice for the user!

Windows seems to be more user friendly and people are habituated with it. On the other hand Linux world is catching up with the user friendliness and different visual effects to keep the user working fast as well as making the environment more enjoyable.

With plethora of Linux Distributions over the net, each one of them promising higher level of friendliness, usability, richer feature set and application set, it surely becomes a really difficult task to decide what distribution to go for (and after all Linux is FREE)! I have used many of the Linux distributions over last 2 years. I tested almost each of them which I got from some magazine and had downloaded 2-3 of them from the internet as well.

Choices vary and it has to be decided by the USER which Linux distro to go for as its the user ONLY who knows his needs specifically and clearly! One point is that when it comes to LINUX, most of those users who have absolutely no experience with Linux, ask the community members what to go for and ultimately end with almost no solution.

Usually, people discuss only the “FAMOUS” Linux distributions like openSUSE, fedora, UBUNTU and such! However sometimes, other not-so-well-known distros are also too good to resist.

I place them according to what they have to offer in different ares:
1> openSUSE: My personal favorite distribution. It offers you the latest stable software, all tested by the community and thus stable. Being one of the most popular distro as well, it does offer you KDE and GNOME and other desktop environments as well. The package management is good as well and you would not need the keyboard while installing software if you have an internet connection and know where to look things up!

*Offers KDE and GNOME and other Desktop environment.

*Stable in most cases. You can rely on it with your precious services and data!

*Ease of use is high.

* Feature set is great! Apart from multimedia, you would not require to look anything from the internet (I say this for general users).

*Most of the things work out of the box.

* NEW: Comes as a LiveCD as well! (from version 10.3)

* Improved package menegement featuring 1-click install from the version 10.3

* package management is BAD. It downloads package information from the software repositories everytime you start the YAST package manager (as of the recent 10.3 release).

*If you have a specific software requirement and you can’t use internet, You will have a REAL tough time with this distro.


2> UBUNTU / KUBUNTU : Yet another distro which is popular as well as contains applications you would love to use! Ubuntu is quite well and OK, is more userfriendly than any other distro (yes even more than openSUSE). It comes in many flavors which are mainly categorizewd my the desktop Environment they use. Kubuntu uses KDE as its desktop environment and UBUNTU uses GNOME

NOTE: Its is advisable to new Windows users shifting to Linux to use KUBUNTU as the KDE desktop environment is more like Windows Desktop than GNOME is!

* Very easy to use and install.

* Great package management.

* Most of the things work out of the box. Good hardware support

*Live CD is available so that you can see the Desktop before actually putting it on your PC’s Hard disk.

* Fast development cycle. So you have a new version every 6 months

* some complaints about instability on latest hardware, specially laptops.

*Live CD needs nice amount of memory to start and run the installation. (RAM required is at least 512 MB).


To be honest, I am putting Fedora at the third place JUST BECAUSE OF ITS POPULARITY AMONG NEWBIES. Fedora is a project of the Red-Hat and is falling behind. Sometimes buggy, with weaker package management, this distro is not fit for home users. Is mainly used on servers (where experts take care of it!).

*continues the trend of Linux to be secure. Still called as the most secure Linux distro.

* Another version of fedora (although commercial) comes with an added advantage called SEL or Security Enhanced Linux which ensures that if one serive is compromised, the other pars of the system remain secure!

*famous among newbies (I know thats not a PLUS point. . . but still).

* Software dependencies will eat up your head and its a nice time consuming process to find and install them.

* Hardware support is not very good for latest hardware which is well supported by other distros.

*Installer is not very friendly. requires a person to be a GEEK in order to install it straight away!


This is one of the BEST Linux distribution to start your Linux journey with. This is one distro that provides MP3 support out of the box and is really stable. Based on Mandrake, one of the most popular Linux distributions, it is well suited for the home user for its wide support of multimedia formats when compared to other Linux distributions. The package manager is very easy for the newbies and comes with a decent bundle of applications and games to keep you busy at work and play as well!

Mandriva is not as popular as others at the top in this list but is surely a distro a newbie will like! If you have not used Linux till now, it is suggested to start away with Mandriva

* easy top use for newbies.

*Stable in case you have not put it up on some hardware not suppported officially.

*Support more multimedia formats out of the box when compared to other distros.

*Comes as a Live CD too.

*Project Metisse is a nice addon to eye candy.

*Both GNOME and KDE are supported.

*Package management is not really appreciated by many experienced users.

*Not many software officially available. However, RPMs released for SUSE do work in most of the cases!


Some people say it is more for a geek . . . but thats not true. It comes with a bundle of more than 15000 (yes nits not 1500, its 15000) software packages. So if it is a dedicated server or be it a multimedia Powerhouse that you want to make, you will never be let down by this OS.

Debian is said to be one of the most stable Linux around and is very easy to use when it comes to software installations. All you need to get some software installed is to type down a simple command. The rest is taken care by its package manager. Debian is the ground on which UBUNTU stands


*really stable on most of the hardware.

*Loads and loads of applications available for being installed from the net!

*A very strong package manager.

*Does not come with a lot of eye candy as of the last version

* Does not include the latest kernel.

*Is a bit tough to install for newbies, But still is worth a try!


There are many many others like PCLinux OS, sabayon, ARK, Xandros etc. but it is not possible to cover all of them. If you really want to switch over to Linux but do not know what to do and whom to trust, all you need to know is :
* How much do you know about computers (and Linux).
* What do you want from your Linux distribution.

Then head over to this address, answer some questions and you will get the name of the Linux distro which suits your needs best:

Some people think that Solaris and BSD are same as Linux. This is not true. Both of them are derivatives of the UNIX operating system (just as linux is) but they are different from the Linux OS. It is not advisable to use Solaris until and unless you understand UNIX well and are more of a developer than a normal user.

BSD is also more suited for a server than a normal Desktop system.


Sql On linux

Posted: November 14, 2008 by Narendra Shah in Linux Box
Tags: , ,

Let us see how Linux and OSS liberate us altogether from the invisible chains of the propriety software:

Do you know that if you get a CD of the Oracle software from some friend, you are using pirated software which is not at all good?
Did you know that if you buy a genuine version of Oracle DBMS, it may cost you very well over the cost of your PC?
Did you know that we have a free DBMS software called MySQL which is free and is as powerful as Oracle; and that major companies like Yahoo, AOL, ebay, amazon and GOOGLE use it to provide you services?

Some additional points may be noted:

* In most cases, you will not get oracle for Linux.

* Oracle is available for Linux but it is a real challenge to get a PIRATED version for free for the Linux OS.

* Oracle installation can slow down your Windows like a tortoise.

* I have seen the Oracle installations failing. They either do not start or do not install at the first place! ( Actually I too tried it, but failed! SO I thought why not look into the open source software area?)

So what should the students do? Students do not need a costly software to practice commands. Also, we do not want our PCs to slow down because of Oracle! So what to do? Here is what to do:

As I mentioned, there exists a powerful DBMS software called as MySQL on Linux (and for Windows as well) which can be downloaded and used for free! SO why go with software piracy and decrease the system performance? Get free and use MySQL. Believe me, it is much easier for students to use it!

Here is the way to help you configure MySQL on Your Linux system. Since I use openSUSE 11.0, I will use the openSUSE 11.0 system in this guide.

To make the MySQL DBMS work for you, you need to follow the following steps:


Install MySQL on your Linux system. It usually comes inbuilt into most of the Linux DVDs (e.g. in openSUSE 11.0 DVD). So if it is not already installed, just open your software package manager and install it. If you have problems doing so, reply back in this post and I (and others) will try to solve your problems.

STEP 2 :

Start MySQL. To do this, you need to use the root account. so go as follows:

(i) –> Start the shell prompt.
(ii) –> Switch to the root user account by passing the su command. It will ask for the root password. Enter the password.
(iii) –> Now, to start the mysql service, you need to enter the following command:

Code: Select all
# service mysql start
You will have to do this everytime you start the system.

If you want the MySQL service to start automatically on each boot, follow the following steps (in openSUSE only):

1. Start yast

2. It will ask for the root password. So enter the root password and continue.

3. After the Yast window comes up, first click on the ‘System’ option on the left pane and then click the “System Services (runlevel)’ option on the right pane. This will open a new window where you can change the settings.

4. In the new window that opened (the system service configuration window), look for the entry ‘mysql’ in the ‘service’ column.

5. Click (not double click) the ‘mysql’ entry and on the bottom, click on the ‘Enable’ button. It takes few seconds. Wait for that time. Now click the ‘Finish’ button in the same window.

Wow! Now, the MySQL service will start automatically everytime you start the system!

After the MySQL service has started, you can close the shell prompt.


Using the MySQL for the first time needs you to configure it. For that you will have to do the following:

(i) –> open the shell prompt and type the command : mysql
(ii) –> This will bring you the mysql prompt. It should look as below :


(iii) –> type the following command at the mysql prompt :

Code: Select all
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'my-password';


The above command will create a user ‘root’ (which can administer the database and sets its password to my-password. If you want some other password, change my-password to a password of your choice.

It should say something like :

Query OK. 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

Now, your mysql is configured! And it is ready to be used!


Using MySQL now onwards is very easy. Now everytime you need to use mysql , you will need to pass the following command at the shell prompt:

Code: Select all
$ mysql -h localhost -u root -p

This will ask you the password you had provided while configuring the MySQL for first use (it is the last word in the single quotes in the “GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES … ” command). In this case, it will be my-password.

NOW, it is ready to be used!

Yes, if you see the size of the post, it is long, but if you look at what has to be done, isn’t it easy? I think it is very easy; specially when you save thousands of rupees, the speed of computer and are not using pirated software!


Now, before you go on trying some commands wildly and thinking why it is not working, I must tell how to make MySQL to work.

In the beginning, there are no databases you could use. So you need to create a database first.


To create a Database, pass the following command at the ‘mysql> ‘ prompt:


Code: Select all
create database <database name>

the above will create a database with the name given at the place of <database name>.


Code: Select all
create database mydb1

this will create a database with name ‘mydb1’ on your computer.


There may be many databases that you will need to create. So you first need to select which database you want to work on. For that you need to pass the following command on the ‘mysql> ‘ prompt:


Code: Select all
use <database name>

The above command will make the wanted database (whose name you write in place of <database name> as the database in use and all the queries that you type will work on that database.


Code: Select all
use mydb1

this will make the ‘mydb1’ database as active and all the commands that you pass will be considered for this database.

Now is that not easier than oracle where each time you need to work on a different database, you need to load a different database and restart the SQL prompt?

I think that once you have done the required step, you will not need anything more than a command (and a password) to use the database. Its easy, right?

MySQL is also available for windows. Just remember that you need to download the installer and in the first configuration steps you will be aske the root password. Also, it is easy to be accessed form the start -> all programs -> MySQL menu. All other configurations are done by the first configuration wizard. just remember that you need to read carefully through the wizard and follow all steps attentively. Once done, it is ready to run!

Advantages of MySQL

1. Free of cose
2. Does not slow down the PC.
3. Takes no time to start.
4. No need to select a database, and mount it and then start the SQL each time you need to use it.
5. can switch between different databases fast.

So I hope you have understood how to use MySQL. If you still have problems, write back in the thread. And please comment on the guide; whether it was excellent, very good, good, satisfactory, bad or useless.

So what after I installed Linux? Where the hell are my applications? What am I doing here? What about my mail reader software, download manager, torrents, browser, office?

Thats what happens when you first install Linux. A Windows user is served with millions (or is it billion ? ) of software. And in the normal world, you won’t see a lot of Linux software on the internet. So what to so? How to get the applications that serve the purpose?

There is the simplest way to install a virtualizer like VMware Workstation, VirtualBox or VMware server and use Windows inside it to get your favorite apps working again. But what good is an OS if it still needs another OS to serve its user? Certainly, Linux is not one of those OSes! It has got its own set of applications which will do the same job (sometimes even better than) that you use in Windows systems.

In this very section I will talk about two things:

1. HOW TO install an application?
2. The list of applications that are available. Here I will list only some applications which are really useful rather than putting up a whole endless list of apps.

How to install an Application under Linux

People accustomed to Windows will find installing software on Linux, a daunting task and yes, it can be one if you do not have an internet connection. Linux distros use their own package management system to handle (install, update, uninstall) software. In Linux, software does not come in a single click install file which will do everything on its own. Every single software needs other LIBRARIES which are once again provided by some other software (which again in turn may need more libraries). So to install an application is not so easy.

However if you have an internet connection, the rest becomes even easier than Windows! Under UBUNTU, all you have to do is to open up your package management software and tell it the package name that you want to install and the rest is done automatically. Under openSUSE, you need to go to and search for the software. If found, you can just use the one-click-install method to get the software installed! Most other distros are gradually developing a similar approach which will make it really easy to install software on system.

And what if you do not have an internet connection? Well, you can still try to download the source files and compile them or better download the RPM or .DEB file which may successfully install the software. A good place to visit is the packman site (just Google for it) and download the software packages from there as you will get the list of the all other packages which you will need (to provide the necessary library) to install the software completely.


Linux is just good at everything. So how can it be bad at the list of software to get you job done? Just as in Windows, you use a lot of tools for different purpose, you will find some really awesome applications under Linux as well. So let us get through the most popular and usable ones in different areas:

———– is the best deal available for free. It is equivalent to MS OFFICE 2003 and has some additional tools available in its suite which you cannot get in MS OFFICE. It comes with the following components:

Writer : Word Processing. Can do the work of MS WORD and FRONTPAGE/PUBLISHER
Calc: Spreadsheet application similar to MS EXCEL
Impress: Presentation Tool similar to powerpoint.
Base: Database application similar to that of MS Access.
DRAW: Vector Drawing. MS OFFICE does not have anything like this
Math: Mathematics formula writing tool. Try to insert a complex mathematical formula in MS word and then use Math. You will come to know of the use of this tool automatically.

Other applications like Koffice and AbiWord are also useful and can do the job of the Office document editing.


The KDE desktop environment as well Gnome, both come with document viewers. The best ones are:

1. Kpdf – PDF Reader for KDE.

2. KGhostView – It can read PS (postscript) files as well. You will have to search for sometime for a PS viewer under windows while Linux users will sit and relax.

3. Adobe Acrobat reader (yes, it is there for Linux as well) – PDF Viewer

4. Gwenview / Eye of Gnome – Similar to Windows picture and Fax viewer but much more advanced.

5. CHMSee: This is not a default application but can be downloaded and installed. It can be used to see the CHM (Compiled Help Material) help files/ ebooks under windows.

Both PIM and Internet features are the most necessary aspect of an operating system which makes it useful. Since most of the things are integrated with the web. So I will name just a few software which made me realize, what INTEGRATION is called (apart from mathematics):

6. Firefox : One of the best Browser for web browsing, is available for Windows and Linux.

7. Konqueror : Much like the WIndow Explorer, it manages the file managemant and can be used as a web browser.

8. Kopete

9. Pidgin (formerly GAIM) : Both the Kopete and Pidgin allow you to chat over Yahoo?, MSN, Google, AIM, ICQ, Jabber and a lot other networks, all at once!

Personal Information Management (PIM)

10: Evolution: Email client + Contact management + calender + Notes + To-do list

11. Kontact: It is for KDE and is as great as Evolution. It can be used as an email client, a contact management tool, a calendar tool, a RSS feed reader, a journal, a notetaker, a to-do list and the application is very very easy to use and is really powerful with its configuration options and the control it allows you to take on any aspect of the Information management you can think of. In short it is “INTEGRATION REDEFINED” .

12: Anjuta : It is a very good IDE for Gnome and can be used for developing C applications.

13: Kate: It actually is a very powerful tool. It can be used as a notepad of Windows (although too much advanced than that one) and can handle many documents in one window at one time, thus reducing desktop clutter. Just configure it the right way and it becomes closer to a C/C++ development environment as well!


14. GIMP : Image Manipulation tool with capabilities similar to that of PHOTOSHOP

15. Krita: Another powerful image manipulation tool

16. InkScape: Vector drawing tool

17: Eye of Gnome: Picture viewer

18: F-Spot : Photo Browser

19: digikam: Photo Management with an intuitive interface. It comes closer to Picasa while keeping it light on computer resources and interface being simple.


20: AmaroK: You cannot understand the power of this application unless you use it. To keep justice to the power of the application and comparing it to Media Players available for Windows, it can be said that AmaroK = Windows Media Player + iTunes + Winamp +More!

21: Mplayer / Kaffeine: Use the Xine libraries (libxine1) and install the Windows codecs and you are bound to forget PowerDVD (just as I did) . . . and thats a bet!!

22: Audacity: a great editor for music files like MP3s etc.


23. K3B : Burn Anything you want. And yes, it is free as well! You need not pay anything for a full featured advanced DVD burning application, which is completely integrated into the Desktop environment.

The list will go on and on and on. But for the most basic tasks, this is a good number of applications that will satisfy you more than others and just to remind you; they are all FREE! Want more.

However Linux is a bit lacking at one feild and this is to be accepted : Video editing. Thats all! The rest is just great.

If you want to install windows exe file to Linux then there is to tool named WINE. You can use it to run any exe in Wine in linux. Yet there are some program which doesnt work with wine also.